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Dynamics of Changes of Some Cherry Fruit Properties and Quality Attributes During the Growing Season

March 21st, 2011 Comments off
Dynamics of Changes of Some Cherry Fruit Properties and Quality
Attributes During the Growing Season
P. Konopacki, D. Konopacka and P. Wawrzyczak
Research Institute of Pomology and Floriculture, Skierniewice, Poland
Keywords: sour cherry, modelling, distribution, harvest date, quality attributes
Abstract
The     sour    cherry    is  an   important      species    for   European       fruit   processing
industry. The quality of cherry products depends primarily on soluble solids content
(SSC) in fruits. Thus, the fruits should be harvested when SSC and mass of fruits
are the highest possible. The fruits of sour cherry of two cultivars ‘English Morello’
and ‘Nefris’ were picked six times (in case of ‘English Morello’) and five times (in
case   of   ‘Nefris’)   before   date   of   commercial   maturity,   in   roughly   weekly   intervals.
Each time 200 fruits were examined for peduncle detachment force and 150 of these
fruits were used for measurements of firmness and SSC. Fitting the logistic curves to
collected   data   showed   that   this   function   is   not   a   reliable   method  for   prediction   of
mean   value      changes   of     quality   attribute     measured      destructively.     Observation   of
frequency       distribution      can,   however,      much      better   evaluate     the    stage   of   fruit
development.         Thus    analyses     of  batch     data   distribution      can   help    prediction     of
optimal harvest date.
INTRODUCTION
The expectations of industry regarding parameters of sour cherries delivered for
processing are focused almost exclusively on soluble solids content (SSC), whereas the
harvest date for cherries is determined by the growers on the basis of fruit colour. This
practice causes that quality of harvested fruit not always fulfil the industry requirements,
especially   when   a   certain   cultivar   is   known   for   low   SSC   (Szymczak   and   Płocharski,
1999)   or   when   the   temperature   during   growing   season   was   lower   than   usual.   Also   the
content     of  pigments     (determining      colour)   depends     on   cultivar   and   season    (Ben   and
Gawęda, 1987a and 1987b), thus its observation can lead to false decision on harvest date.
The   research   on   various   horticultural   commodities   showed   that   also   other   factors   (e.g.
localization,     plant   nutrition    or  availability    of  water)    influence    the   quality   of   fruit.
Therefore, there is a need for a method for evaluation of maturity stage, which would be
reliable and independent of varying growing conditions.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
The     experiment     was    conducted     in  2002.   ëNefrisí    and   ëEnglish    Morelloí    sour
cherry trees were trained for mechanical harvest. The measurements were done 5 times in
case of ëNefrisí and 6 times in case of ëEnglish Morelloí on days listed in Table 1. The
relative date number has been assigned to each measurement day, starting on first day of
th
measurements of ëEnglish Morelloí (10               of June is relative date 0).
Each time 200 fruits were cut off with peduncle (from 10 trees, 20 fruits per tree)
and peduncle detachment force was measured for each fruit using a digital force gauge.
Then approximately 50 fruits were used for analyses of acidity and dry mass (data not
presented     in   the   current   paper),   and   each   of   remaining   fruits   has   been   analysed   for
firmness   and   soluble   solids   content   (SSC).   Firmness   was   measured   as   force   needed   to
puncture intact fruit using an Instron machine (3.2 mm diameter probe, crosshead speed
-1
50   mm   min    ),   while   SSC   was   determined   by   refractometric   method   in   juice   freshly
squeezed out from particular fruit.
The   dynamics   of   several   chemical   and   physical   processes   can   be   described   by
sigmoid curve (Tijskens and Evelo, 1994). Thus the logistic function in modification of
Tijskens et al. (2001) was used to fit with obtained data. The increasing function (Eq. 1)
was   used   for   SSC   values,   while   decreasing   function   (Eq.   2)   was   used   for   detachment
Proc. Int. Conf. Quality in Chains
Eds. Tijskens & Vollebregt                                                                                   145

Dynamics of Changes of Some Cherry Fruit Properties and Quality Attributes During the Growing Season
P. Konopacki, D. Konopacka and P. Wawrzyczak Research Institute of Pomology and Floriculture, Skierniewice, Poland
Keywords: sour cherry, modelling, distribution, harvest date, quality attributes
Abstract          The     sour    cherry    is  an   important      species    for   European       fruit   processing industry. The quality of cherry products depends primarily on soluble solids content (SSC) in fruits. Thus, the fruits should be harvested when SSC and mass of fruits are the highest possible. The fruits of sour cherry of two cultivars ‘English Morello’ and ‘Nefris’ were picked six times (in case of ‘English Morello’) and five times (in case   of   ‘Nefris’)   before   date   of   commercial   maturity,   in   roughly   weekly   intervals. Each time 200 fruits were examined for peduncle detachment force and 150 of these fruits were used for measurements of firmness and SSC. Fitting the logistic curves to collected   data   showed   that   this   function   is   not   a   reliable   method  for   prediction   of mean   value      changes   of     quality   attribute     measured      destructively.     Observation   of frequency       distribution      can,   however,      much      better   evaluate     the    stage   of   fruit development.         Thus    analyses     of  batch     data   distribution      can   help    prediction     of optimal harvest date.
INTRODUCTION          The expectations of industry regarding parameters of sour cherries delivered for processing are focused almost exclusively on soluble solids content (SSC), whereas the harvest date for cherries is determined by the growers on the basis of fruit colour. This practice causes that quality of harvested fruit not always fulfil the industry requirements, especially   when   a   certain   cultivar   is   known   for   low   SSC   (Szymczak   and   Płocharski, 1999)   or   when   the   temperature   during   growing   season   was   lower   than   usual.   Also   the content     of  pigments     (determining      colour)   depends     on   cultivar   and   season    (Ben   and Gawęda, 1987a and 1987b), thus its observation can lead to false decision on harvest date. The   research   on   various   horticultural   commodities   showed   that   also   other   factors   (e.g. localization,     plant   nutrition    or  availability    of  water)    influence    the   quality   of   fruit. Therefore, there is a need for a method for evaluation of maturity stage, which would be reliable and independent of varying growing conditions.
MATERIALS AND METHODS          The     experiment     was    conducted     in  2002.   ëNefrisí    and   ëEnglish    Morelloí    sour cherry trees were trained for mechanical harvest. The measurements were done 5 times in case of ëNefrisí and 6 times in case of ëEnglish Morelloí on days listed in Table 1. The relative date number has been assigned to each measurement day, starting on first day of                                                  th measurements of ëEnglish Morelloí (10               of June is relative date 0).          Each time 200 fruits were cut off with peduncle (from 10 trees, 20 fruits per tree) and peduncle detachment force was measured for each fruit using a digital force gauge. Then approximately 50 fruits were used for analyses of acidity and dry mass (data not presented     in   the   current   paper),   and   each   of   remaining   fruits   has   been   analysed   for firmness   and   soluble   solids   content   (SSC).   Firmness   was   measured   as   force   needed   to puncture intact fruit using an Instron machine (3.2 mm diameter probe, crosshead speed                 -1 50   mm   min    ),   while   SSC   was   determined   by   refractometric   method   in   juice   freshly squeezed out from particular fruit.          The   dynamics   of   several   chemical   and   physical   processes   can   be   described   by sigmoid curve (Tijskens and Evelo, 1994). Thus the logistic function in modification of Tijskens et al. (2001) was used to fit with obtained data. The increasing function (Eq. 1) was   used   for   SSC   values,   while   decreasing   function   (Eq.   2)   was   used   for   detachment
Proc. Int. Conf. Quality in Chains Eds. Tijskens & Vollebregt                                                                                   145

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An Analysis of the Importance of Ripeness to Consumers in the United States When Making a Purchase Decision for Peaches, Plums, and Nectarines

March 21st, 2011 Comments off
An Analysis of the Importance of Ripeness to Consumers in the United
States When Making a Purchase Decision for Peaches, Plums, and
Nectarines
Marianne McGarry Wolf, Adam J. Martin and Tina Cagianut
Agribusiness
California Polytechnic State University
San Luis Obispo, California
USA
Keywords: Stone Fruit, Ripeness, Ripe Label, Peaches, Plums, Nectarines
Abstract
This   research   examines   consumers’   purchasing   behavior   in   the   stone   fruit
market. The most important factors that influence the decision to purchase peaches,
plums,   and   nectarines   are:   that   the   product   is   safe   to   eat,   healthy,   sweet,   it   looks
good,     is  a  good    value    for  the   money,     firmness,     and   ripeness.    Consumers        are
unfamiliar   with   brix,   acidity,   and   pressure   concerning   stone   fruit.   Simulated   test
marketing was used to expose consumers to peaches, plums, and nectarines with a
Tested   Ripe Label. The   label had   a positive impact on   purchase interest, fifty-four
percent   of   consumers   indicated   that   they   would   probably   or   definitely   purchase
more stone fruit with the tested ripe label. The consumers that indicated an increase
in   purchase      interest   were     profiled.   These     consumers      find   it  more    difficult   to
determine   ripeness   of   peaches,   plums   and   nectarines.   Those   that   would   purchase
more stone fruit with a tested ripe label are more likely to purchase a different fruit
if the   grocery store does not have their desired fruit or if it does not appear ripe.
Further,   they   are   likely   to   purchase   a   higher   quality   stone   fruit   if   it   were   more
expensive.
INTRODUCTION
Consumers       are   drawn    to  both   appearance     and   merchandising       of  stone   fruit.
According to Fresh Trends 2002, stone fruit purchasers would like to have the ability to
purchase fruit based on specific ripeness. Also, consumers perceive branded products as
safer, fresher and of higher quality than non-branded products. Some of the most frequent
consumer   complaints   heard   in   the   retail   produce   department   concern   the   inconsistent
quality of fruit available (Crisosto and Day, 1995). A frequent consumer complaint is that
the   fruit   available   for   retail   sale   is   often   dry   and   flavorless   while   another   complaint
indicated fresh fruit supplied had inconsistent quality (Fresh Trends 2002). The two main
reasons   for   low consumption of stone fruits are post harvest internal breakdown of the
fruit (i.e. flesh mealiness, browning and lack of flavor) and fruit with hard consistency at
consumption (Crisosto, C. et al., 2000). Fruit appearance, color and price are the top three
attributes   of   fresh   produce   purchases; however,   consumers   are   willing  to   pay  more for
quality    or   value-added     features    (Fresh   Trends,    2002).   Consumers       pick   fruit  based
primarily on outward appearance and have difficulty consistently judging and purchasing
products for maturity based on appearance alone (Fresh Trends 2002).
The   California   Tree   Fruit   Agreement   found   that   consumers   prefer   peaches   and
nectarines with a red color, that can be bred into the fruit. Also, Chris Fisher of agAccess,
a Davis, California-based consulting firm, suggests that consumers want peaches, plums,
and nectarines, but do not get a “uniform eating experience.” To boost consumer demand
the CTFA is incorporating new ripening protocols.              This research examines consumers of
peaches, plums, and nectarines to determine satisfaction with stone fruit and the factors
affecting purchasing behavior. In addition, consumer reaction to a label that indicates fruit
ripeness is examined.
Proc. Int. Conf. Quality in Chains
Eds. Tijskens & Vollebregt                                                                                 61
Acta Hort. 604, ISHS 2003

An Analysis of the Importance of Ripeness to Consumers in the United States When Making a Purchase Decision for Peaches, Plums, and Nectarines
Marianne McGarry Wolf, Adam J. Martin and Tina Cagianut Agribusiness California Polytechnic State University San Luis Obispo, California USA
Keywords: Stone Fruit, Ripeness, Ripe Label, Peaches, Plums, Nectarines
Abstract          This   research   examines   consumers’   purchasing   behavior   in   the   stone   fruit market. The most important factors that influence the decision to purchase peaches, plums,   and   nectarines   are:   that   the   product   is   safe   to   eat,   healthy,   sweet,   it   looks good,     is  a  good    value    for  the   money,     firmness,     and   ripeness.    Consumers        are unfamiliar   with   brix,   acidity,   and   pressure   concerning   stone   fruit.   Simulated   test marketing was used to expose consumers to peaches, plums, and nectarines with a Tested   Ripe Label. The   label had   a positive impact on   purchase interest, fifty-four percent   of   consumers   indicated   that   they   would   probably   or   definitely   purchase more stone fruit with the tested ripe label. The consumers that indicated an increase in   purchase      interest   were     profiled.   These     consumers      find   it  more    difficult   to determine   ripeness   of   peaches,   plums   and   nectarines.   Those   that   would   purchase more stone fruit with a tested ripe label are more likely to purchase a different fruit if the   grocery store does not have their desired fruit or if it does not appear ripe. Further,   they   are   likely   to   purchase   a   higher   quality   stone   fruit   if   it   were   more expensive.
INTRODUCTION          Consumers       are   drawn    to  both   appearance     and   merchandising       of  stone   fruit. According to Fresh Trends 2002, stone fruit purchasers would like to have the ability to purchase fruit based on specific ripeness. Also, consumers perceive branded products as safer, fresher and of higher quality than non-branded products. Some of the most frequent consumer   complaints   heard   in   the   retail   produce   department   concern   the   inconsistent quality of fruit available (Crisosto and Day, 1995). A frequent consumer complaint is that the   fruit   available   for   retail   sale   is   often   dry   and   flavorless   while   another   complaint indicated fresh fruit supplied had inconsistent quality (Fresh Trends 2002). The two main reasons   for   low consumption of stone fruits are post harvest internal breakdown of the fruit (i.e. flesh mealiness, browning and lack of flavor) and fruit with hard consistency at consumption (Crisosto, C. et al., 2000). Fruit appearance, color and price are the top three attributes   of   fresh   produce   purchases; however,   consumers   are   willing  to   pay  more for quality    or   value-added     features    (Fresh   Trends,    2002).   Consumers       pick   fruit  based primarily on outward appearance and have difficulty consistently judging and purchasing products for maturity based on appearance alone (Fresh Trends 2002).          The   California   Tree   Fruit   Agreement   found   that   consumers   prefer   peaches   and nectarines with a red color, that can be bred into the fruit. Also, Chris Fisher of agAccess, a Davis, California-based consulting firm, suggests that consumers want peaches, plums, and nectarines, but do not get a “uniform eating experience.” To boost consumer demand the CTFA is incorporating new ripening protocols.              This research examines consumers of peaches, plums, and nectarines to determine satisfaction with stone fruit and the factors affecting purchasing behavior. In addition, consumer reaction to a label that indicates fruit ripeness is examined.
Proc. Int. Conf. Quality in Chains Eds. Tijskens & Vollebregt                                                                                 61 Acta Hort. 604, ISHS 2003

Categories: Jurnal Tags: