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Specialty Corns, Corns Second Edition Edited by Arnel R. Hallauer, Ph.D.

December 4th, 2012

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Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Specialty corns / edited by Arnel R. Hallauer.—2nd ed.
p. cm.
Includes bibliographical references.
ISBN 0-8493-2377-0
1. Corn—Varieties. 2. Corn—Breeding. 3. Corn—Germplasm resources. 4.
Corn—Utilization. I. Hallauer, Arnel. R., 1932-
SB191.M2 S6252 2000
633.1′523—dc2100-039767
CIP

 

Preface
Corn is one of the major cereal grains grown in the world, exceeded only by rice and wheat in terms of quantity produced. In the U.S., corn is produced on 70 to 80 million acres annually and plays an important role in the economy of the country. Hybrid corn was introduced in the U.S. in the 1930s, and average production per unit area increased from 35 bushels per acre for the period of 1945 to 1950 to more than 120 bushels per acre for the decade of the 1990s. In 1998, corn growers in the U.S. produced 9.77 billion bushels with an average yield of 134 bushels per acre. Nearly 60% of the increase in yield was because of genetic improvement of hybrids.
Over 95% of the corn produced in the U.S. is marketed as commodity corn, which is primarily yellow dent corn. Commodity corn is fed to livestock (55%), is exported (29%) and largely used for feed, is used in wet milling (12%), and is used in dry milling (4%). Although a typical supermarket displays over 1200 items that include one or more ingredients from corn, less than 5% of the total U.S. corn production is marketed as specialty corns. Several distinct types of specialty corns are available (popcorn, sweet corn, high-protein quality corn, high waxy corn, high oil corn, etc.), but individually each has less than 1% of the total corn market. Alternative uses of the corn that can be produced in large quantities in the U.S. would have broad implications in the economy of the nation and for the individual grower.
Greater emphasis is being given to the development of new processes and new products to enhance the value of corn. One new use for corn in recent years has been the extraction of ethanol for use as corn-based fuels for cars and trucks. About 600 million bushels of corn in the U.S. are converted to ethanol each year, adding at least 30 cents greater return per bushel of corn and greater returns for the producer.
Development of superior specialty corns that have consistent performance in quality and in quantity has not received the same emphasis in genetics and breeding that has been given to the yellow dent corns. Each specialty corn has traits that require special emphasis, but the basic germplasm and breeding methods used to improve yellow dent corn often are used in development of improved specialty corns. However, because of the standards required for specialty corns, methods of development and improvement are usually more complex than those for yellow dent commodity corn. The same standards of performance are desired, but the genetics of the specialty traits often are in conflict with the standards used for yellow dent corns.
Specialty corn programs have unique characteristics that require careful handling and monitoring
during their development for specific needs. The objective of this volume is to provide a summary of the germplasm, methods of development, and specific problems involved for some specialty corns. Chapters on development of blue corn and baby corn are new to the Second Edition. Although blue corn and baby corn have specific niche markets, they are becoming more recognized in the human diets, especially for specific ethnic groups. Two chapters provide an introduction of the kernel mutants and of the different types of starch modifications available in corn to illustrate the variation in properties of the corn kernel. Eight chapters provide detailed descriptions of the germplasm and methods used to develop value-added corns that are related to food and feed uses. One chapter summarizes the processes used for food products derived from corn. The last three chapters describe methods used to develop corn for manufacture of pipes, corn for silage, and corns for temperate areas. Some traditional markets of yellow dent corn other than for feed or for export — ethanol, corn sweeteners, and corn starches — were not addressed in this volume. Most chapters have been revised to include the latest information and more recent references; exceptions were the chapters on high amylose and waxy corn and breeding white
© 2001 by CRC Press LLC
endosperm corn. Only minor revisions were included in the chapter on high quality protein corn. It is our desire that the information provided will serve as a guide and reference to those engaged in development of specialty corns and to those that are considering the possibilities of initiating specialty corn programs. U.S. corn producers have become extremely proficient at producing more grain per unit area, but profit margins continue to decrease. Adding value either via alternative products from the large volumes of grain produced or development of specialty corns is of interest to producers and processors. We hope the revised edition can enhance the future uses of corn.
I wish to thank the contributing authors for their tireless efforts, their cooperation in preparing and revising manuscripts, and their patience during the completion of the volume.
Arnel R. Hallauer
© 2001 by CRC Press LLC
Editor
Arnel R. Hallauer is a C. F. Curtiss Distinguished Professor in Agriculture with the Department of Agronomy, College of Agriculture at Iowa State University. He is a native of Kansas who graduated from Kansas State University in 1954 with a B.S. degree in plant science. After serving with the U.S. Army (1954–1956), he enrolled at Iowa State University where he fulfilled the requirements for M.S. (1958) and Ph.D. (1960) degrees in plant breeding. His professional career started in 1958 as an agronomist with the U.S. Department of Agriculture breeding for resistance to the European corn borer. During 1961–1962, Hallauer was stationed in the Genetics Department at North Carolina State University to study the inheritance of quantitative traits. In 1962, he returned to Iowa, where his research interests focused on the inheritance of quantitative traits, selection methods for the enhancement of germplasm resources, effectiveness of methods for evaluating inbred lines for their potential in hybrids, and evaluation, adaptation, and enhancement of exotic germplasm sources for use in temperate area breeding programs. Hallauer retired from the U.S. Department of Agriculture in 1989 and accepted a position in corn breeding at Iowa State University, where he continues to pursue research on breeding methods and germplasm enhancement. He teaches graduate-level courses in plant breeding. He has been the major advisor for more than 80 students who have fulfilled the requirements for M.S. and Ph.D. degrees with majors in plant breeding, and he has served on the program of study committees for more than 145 graduate students.
Hallauer has been recognized for his basic research in the application of quantitative genetic theory to applied plant breeding for line and hybrid development and germplasm enhancement. A compilation of the quantitative genetic studies conducted in corn and their applications to corn breeding were summarized and published in Quantitative Genetics in Maize Breeding. The book has become widely used by breeders of corn and other crop species in the U.S. and internationally. He has been recognized for his contributions with election to the National Academy of Sciences in 1989 and inclusion in the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s Agricultural Research Science Hall of Fame in 1992. He received the Iowa Governor’s Science Medal in 1990 and the National Council Commercial Plant Breeders/Genetics and Breeding Award in 1984.
© 2001 by CRC Press LLC
Contributors
Chokechai Aekatasanawan
National Corn and Sorghum Research Center
Kasetsart University
Pakchong, Nakhon Ratchasima
Thailand
F. Javier Betrán
Associate Professor
Department of Soil and Crop Sciences
Texas A & M University
College Station, Texas
Anton J. Bockholt
Department of Soil and Crop Sciences
Texas A&M University
College Station, Texas
Charles D. Boyer
Department of Horticulture
Oregon State University
Corvallis, Orgeon
James G. Coors
Professor
Department of Agronomy
University of Wisconsin-Madison
Madison, Wisconsin
Larry L. Darrah
Research Leader
USDA-ARS Plant Genetics
University of Missouri
Columbia, Missouri
Virgil Fergason
Retired, Former Director of Research
Custom Farm Seed
Division of National Starch and Chemical Co.
Decatur, Illinois
Marta Hilda Gomez
Nabisco
East Hanover, New Jersey
L. Curtis Hannah
Department of Vegetable Crops
University of Florida
Gainesville, Florida
Robert J. Lambert
Professor of Plant Breeding and Genetics
Department of Crop Sciences
University of Illinois
Urbana, Illinois
Joseph G. Lauer
Associate Professor
Department of Agronomy
University of Wisconsin
Madison, Wisconsin
Charles G. Poneleit
Professor
Department of Agronomy
University of Kentucky
Lexington, Kentucky
Lloyd W. Rooney
Professor
Cereal Quality Laboratory
Department of Soil and Crop Sciences
Texas A & M University
College Station, Texas
Sergio O. Serna-Saldivar
Instituto Tecnologico y de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey
Departamento de Tecnologia de Alimentos
Monterrey, N.L., Mexico
William F. Tracy
Professor
Department of Agronomy
University of Wisconsin
Madison, Wisconsin
© 2001 by CRC Press LLC
Forrest Troyer
Vice President R & D, Retired
DeKalb Genetics
Adjunct Professor of Plant Breeding
Crop Sciences, University of Illinois
DeKalb, Illinois
Surinder Kumar Vasal
CIMMYT
Department of Agriculture
Kasetsart University
Bangkok, BKK 10900
Thailand
Pamela J. White
Professor
Food Science and Human Nutrition Department
and Center for Crops Utilization Research
Iowa State University
Ames, Iowa
Kenneth E. Ziegler
Instructor
Department of Agronomy
Iowa State University
Ames, Iowa

Contents
Chapter 1
Kernel Mutants of Corn
Charles D. Boyer and L. Curtis Hannah
Chapter 2
Properties of Corn Starch
Pamela J. White
Chapter 3
High Amylose and Waxy Corns
Virgil Fergason
Chapter 4
High Quality Protein Corn
Surinder Kumar Vasal
Chapter 5
High-Oil Corn Hybrids
Robert J. Lambert
Chapter 6
Sweet Corn
William F. Tracy
Chapter 7
Popcorn
Kenneth E. Ziegler
Chapter 8
Breeding White Endosperm Corn
Charles G. Poneleit
Chapter 9
Baby Corn
Chokechai Aekatasanawan
Chapter 10
Blue Corn
F. Javier Betrán, Anton J. Bockholt, and Lloyd W. Rooney
Chapter 11
Food Uses of Regular and Specialty Corns and Their Dry-Milled Fractions
Sergio O. Serna-Saldivar, Marta Hilda Gomez, and Lloyd W. Rooney
© 2001 by CRC Press LLC
Chapter 12
Pipe Corn, Basis of the “Barnyard Briar”
Larry L. Darrah
Chapter 13
Silage Corn
James G. Coors and Joseph G. Lauer
Chapter 14
Temperate Corn — Background, Behavior, and Breeding
Forrest Troyer

 

 

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